Adding CBD honey to calming tea, or putting a few drops under the tongue doesn’t carry the emotional baggage of taking pills. Pills scream, “you’re sick!” Healing treatments that fall outside the “pill” association are all the more powerful. They help you separate yourself from the “sick” person. Furthermore, CBD oil benefits go beyond treating chronic pain.
Certain facets of acute cannabinoid exposure, including tachycardia, hypothermia, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, ocular injection, intraocular pressure decreases, etc. are subject to rapid tachyphylaxis upon continued administration (Jones et al 1976). No dose tolerance to the therapeutic effects of Sativex has been observed in clinical trials in over 1500 patient-years of administration. Additionally, therapeutic efficacy has been sustained for several years in a wide variety of symptoms; SAFEX studies in MS and peripheral neuropathic pain, confirm that Sativex doses remain stable or even decreased after prolonged usage (Wade et al 2006), with maintenance of therapeutic benefit and even continued improvement.
I placed my first order well over a month ago, but wanted to wait until I could give a more accurate review of Medterras CBD tincture. Ive dealt with the pain of fibromyalgia for many years, and never wanted to take the harsh prescription drugs usually associated with the condition (the side effects seem worse than living with the condition itself!). I did a great deal of research on hemp CBD and thought Id at least give it a try. I am both surprised and pleased to report that I have found a significant difference since taking CBD. Obviously, I cant say that it will work for everyone and every condition, but I will say that at least in my case, it has improved the quality of my body movement significantly. Certainly worth a try if you are at all hesitant.
Ingredients: 100 mg Hemp Flower Extract, Organic Coconut Oil, Organic Shea Butter, Cocoa Butter, Beeswax, Organic Menthol Crystals, Boswellia Extract Powder, White Willow Bark Extract, Organic Cayenne, Organic Calendula Flowers, Organic Ginger, Arnica Oil, Capsicum Oil, Sunflower Oil, Essential Oils: Wintergreen, Organic Eucalyptus, Peppermint, Lavender, and Ginger
Our products include foods that are prepared in a way that safeguards their nutritional value. The majority of these ingredients are grown locally on our certified organic farm and may require chopping, dicing, juicing and/or drying for use in our products. The resulting whole food ingredients are then added to a formula that may include whole food extracts, animal tissue extracts and concentrates, botanicals, whole food isolates and synthetic ingredients. These highly complex combinations contain a variety of elements designed to trigger trophic effects that support the body’s healthy balance and wellness.*

Hi Diane, how did you go on with the CBD oil please. If it worked how long before you saw any results. I'm scared of flaring everything. Nerve damage across buttocks from a surgeon who found the nerve stuck to the bulge during a laminectomy operation and prised it off. I haven't sat for 5 years and getting worse. A muscle in my buttock is now throbbing constantly and causing pain to the muscle above. I've only started taking it today but the muscle pain is still as painful. Does it take a while for it to work. Only started on low dose to see what happens. Thank you Lyn
Final thoughts: Hemp oil and hemp derived CBD oil is legal in all fifty states, but there certainly is a stigma to it. Because of that it can be very hard to find reliable information to educate yourself with. This is a great dietary supplement and may help decrease inflammation, improve skin, help with mild pain, etc. If you have severe pain, hemp derived CBD oil may be what you need.

But the CBD oil use that might be most intriguing—and could perhaps be the biggest game-changer—is for pain relief. As the United States grapples with the opioid epidemic and struggles to treat the 50 million plus Americans who struggle with chronic pain, CBD oil has emerged as a nonaddictive alternative that people are applying as a topical oil, ingesting as a pill, or smoking through a vape pen.


One area where CBD is clearly helpful: the treatment of seizures associated with one form of epilepsy. A 2017 New England Journal of Medicine study found ingesting oral CBD dramatically cut down most patients’ seizure frequency—a finding that prompted the FDA to support the approval of one CBD drug for use in the treatment of some epilepsy patients.

UPDATE! I ordered this product again because the first bottle worked magnificently however upon receiving the new bottle, I live in Florida and noticed that the bottle was overwhelmingly warm when received... so I put it in the refrigerator and waited for my other bottle to finish to open this one. I have now ingested this on two separate occasions and have become violently ill upon consumption. This product is not consistent, be extremely cautious when buying and using this product definitely test it to make sure it's not rancid before you add it to your meals. I am extremely upset about this and wish the company would contact me..
A. The FDA is aware that several states have either passed laws that remove state restrictions on the medical use of marijuana and its derivatives or are considering doing so. It is important to conduct medical research into the safety and effectiveness of marijuana products through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. We welcome the opportunity to talk with states who are considering support for medical research of marijuana and its derivatives to provide information on Federal and scientific standards.
The endocannabinoid system is tonically active in control of pain, as demonstrated by the ability of SR141716A (rimonabant), a CB1 antagonist, to produce hyperalgesia upon administration to mice (Richardson et al 1997). As mentioned above, the ECS is active throughout the neuraxis, including integrative functions in the periacqueductal gray (Walker et al 1999a; Walker et al 1999b), and in the ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus, in which cannabinoids proved to be 10-fold more potent than morphine in wide dynamic range neurons mediating pain (Martin et al 1996). The ECS also mediates central stress-induced analgesia (Hohmann et al 2005), and is active in nociceptive spinal areas (Hohmann et al 1995; Richardson et al 1998a) including mechanisms of wind-up (Strangman and Walker 1999) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Richardson et al 1998b). It was recently demonstrated that cannabinoid agonists suppress the maintenance of vincristine-induced allodynia through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord (Rahn et al 2007). The ECS is also active peripherally (Richardson et al 1998c) where CB1 stimulation reduces pain, inflammation and hyperalgesia. These mechanisms were also proven to include mediation of contact dermatitis via CB1 and CB2 with benefits of THC noted systemically and locally on inflammation and itch (Karsak et al 2007). Recent experiments in mice have even suggested the paramount importance of peripheral over central CB1 receptors in nociception of pain (Agarwal et al 2007)
Thapa, D., Toguri, J. T., Szczesniak, A. M., & Kelly, A. E. M. (2017, April 1). The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), and the synthetic derivatives, HU308 and CBD-DMH, reduces hyperalgesia and inflammation in a mouse model of corneal injury [Abstract]. FASEB Journal. Retrieved from https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.811.7
Kats Botanicals provides excellent quality CBD derivatives including CBD Oil for Sale, CBD Vape Oil (Hemp), CBD Gummies (Hemp), and CBD isolate, which you can safely consume. Elevate your mind and body with our all natural hemp oil based products. Kats Botanicals offers a wide variety of options for wellness-minded individuals who are looking for a more naturalistic approach to their daily lives. Have you always wanted to try hemp oil? Perhaps you have a question we can answer about this amazing botanical? Introduce your mind and body to this wonderful plant called hemp, it’s molecular characteristics are called CBD, and you will enjoy a wellness minded lifestyle naturalistic evangelicals are benefitting from on a daily basis.
Yes! We ship our CBD oil to over 40 countries including Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guam, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Antilles, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia,  Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, U.S. Virgin Islands, Uruguay, and many others! If you require assistance completing a payment, please contact us.
LA performs a host of functions in the body. It is essential for alerting the immune system in response to a stressor or pathogen. This leads to inflammation, but this necessary. Omega – 6 is also required for energy production, safeguarding from allergies. It also keeps the heart tissue functioning properly. Omega – 6 also helps the body recover from fatigue.

In fact, CBD is therapeutic in nature, and will work to manipulate bodily systems at the cellular level to return afflicted organ systems, tissue systems, and even chemical systems in the central nervous system back to a state of health and homeostasis. This is precisely why it has been capable of treating conditions such as depression and anxiety, to chronic physical ailments such as pain, inflammation, arthritis, and more.

For example, Charlotte's Web Holdings (NASDAQOTH:CWBHF), which is one of a very small handful of marijuana stocks to have generated an operating profit without the help of one-time benefits or fair-value adjustments, has its line of CBD products in more than 3,600 U.S retailers. The passage of the Farm Bill was expected to rapidly expand this retail presence, with Charlotte's Web leaning on CBD derived from hemp plants. However, demand for CBD products may prove less robust than initially thought as a result of regulatory pushback against CBD-infused edibles. This might have the potential to adversely affect Charlotte's Web's near-term growth prospects.
My mom is late stage dementia. We have tried coconut oil/black pepper/curcumin combo for years. Gives only tine bit of help, and is not something that reverses dementia. Maybe in someone who can score better than a 14 on the mme it could be of help. But cannabinoid is a different story. Cannabinoids produce better results in less time. Can't say yet that they will reverse anything though.
Our Melt is a revolutionary pain relief CBD lotion powered by Amplifi™ Nanotechnology allowing for instant relief. We were tired of coconut oil topicals that clog pores and leave skin greasy and oily, so we developed a product with a more advanced formulation. What makes Melt™ different is that it starts with organic aloe juice, making it a water-based topical lotion. So, it glides on your skin easily and absorbs rapidly, leaving no oily or sticky residue. Then, we combined cooling menthol and warming capsicum and camphor oil for that icy hot sensation. We finished with a blend of over 20 essential oils specially engineered for pain relief.

If you're confused by the sudden ubiquity of CBD and cannabis-based products, you're not the only one. "My state doesn't even allow medical marijuana," Idahoans or South Dakotans may say. "So why can I suddenly walk into my local Sephora and buy cannabis oil mascara?" As you can imagine, it's complicated. And claims that CBD is 100% legal in all 50 states (which appear frequently) are oversimplifying the matter.

Natural cannabis oil supplements are available in capsule and spray forms, as well as oils, which patients can smoke or consume orally. Patients should not confuse medical supplements with the synthetic pharmaceutical varieties, which mimic the effect of cannabis but are not natural. Medical supplements can be pure THC, pure CBD or, so called ‘full-spectrum products’ like CBD oil, which contain ALL the beneficial compounds found in the hemp plant.
Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner.[24][25] In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity.[26] A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.[27]
Before I even checked the ingredients list and saw that cocoa seed butter was involved, my first impression was that this body butter smelled like chocolate, so much so that my stomach rumbled with hunger because it was 4pm and I hadn’t eaten lunch yet. Don’t the “whipped” descriptor fool you—unlike most body butters you’ve used, this formula is solid to the touch, a balm rather than a cream. But that might be exactly what you want if you’re looking for a CBD-infused treatment anyway—something that feels extra-nourishing and almost medicinal. Luckily, it smells incredible in a subtle, natural way, not like other body butters with artificial tropical fruit scents.
Hemp oil is an oil extracted from the hemp plant. All plants in the Cannabis genus can produce the oil, but usually only industrial hemp is used to make hemp oil. Industrial hemp is a hemp varietal which has been cultivated specifically for industrial production, and it has a minimum of the psychoactive substances associated with the genus, most notably THC. Hemp oil is typically almost free of THC, and it has no psychoactive properties.
Cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), work by mimicking natural endocannabinoids like anandamide (described above) in the body. Endocannabinoids are part of a complex messaging system in the body called the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system oversees or regulates parts of the nervous system, endorphins, immune system functions, hormones, mood and emotions, metabolism, and many other chemical messengers in the body.
In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was identified (CB1) (Howlett et al 1988) and in 1993, a second was described (CB2) (Munro et al 1993). Both are 7-domain G-protein coupled receptors affecting cyclic-AMP, but CB1 is more pervasive throughout the body, with particular predilection to nociceptive areas of the central nervous system and spinal cord (Herkenham et al 1990; Hohmann et al 1999), as well as the peripheral nervous system (Fox et al 2001; Dogrul et al 2003) wherein synergy of activity between peripheral and central cannabinoid receptor function has been demonstrated (Dogrul et al 2003). CB2, while commonly reported as confined to lymphoid and immune tissues, is also proving to be an important mediator for suppressing both pain and inflammatory processes (Mackie 2006). Following the description of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for these were discovered: anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) in 1992 in porcine brain (Devane et al 1992), and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995 in canine gut tissue (Mechoulam et al 1995) (Figure 1). These endocannabinoids both act as retrograde messengers on G-protein coupled receptors, are synthesized on demand, and are especially active on glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synapses. Together, the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (“endocannabinoids”) and metabolizing enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (Di Marzo et al 1998), whose functions have been prosaically termed to be “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect” (p. 528). The endocannabinoid system parallels and interacts at many points with the other major endogenous pain control systems: endorphin/enkephalin, vanilloid/transient receptor potential (TRPV), and inflammatory. Interestingly, our first knowledge of each pain system has derived from investigation of natural origin analgesic plants, respectively: cannabis (Cannabis sativa, C. indica) (THC, CBD and others), opium poppy (Papaver somniferun) (morphine, codeine), chile peppers (eg, Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense) (capsaicin) and willow bark (Salix spp.) (salicylic acid, leading to acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin). Interestingly, THC along with AEA and 2-AG, are all partial agonists at the CB1 receptor. Notably, no endocannabinoid has ever been administered to humans, possibly due to issues of patentability and lack of commercial feasibility (Raphael Mechoulam, pers comm 2007). For an excellent comprehensive review of the endocannabinoid system, see Pacher et al (2006), while Walker and Huang have provided a key review of antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in models of acute and persistent pain (Walker and Huang 2002).
Hi, I had ovarian cancer stage 2 and went to do chemotherapy for 16 times in 2014. It came back last year 2016 but I did not do chemotherapy or radiation therapy as suggested by the doctor. I am taking hormone therapy at the moment. I would like to use cannabis oil but which one and how much CBD and how much THC should I take for ovarian cancer? Can anyone give some idea?. Thank you very much.
About 49% of the weight of hempseed is an edible oil[7] that contains 76% as essential fatty acids; i.e., linoleic acid, omega-6 (LA, 54%), alpha-linolenic acid, omega-3 (ALA, 17%), in addition to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 3%), monounsaturated fat (5% to 11%), and stearidonic acid (2%).[8] Hemp seed oil contains 5% to 7% saturated fat.[7][8] In common with other oils, hempseed oil provides 9 kcal/g. Compared with other culinary oils it is low in saturated fatty acids.[8]
Until 2017, products containing cannabidiol marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.[89] As of 2018, cannabis oil is legal to possess, buy, and sell in the UK, providing the product does not contain more than 0.2% THC and is not advertised as providing a medicinal benefit.[90]

Although both oils are generally safe for use, the main difference between hemp oil and marijuana oil comes down to the THC content, which contributes to their different side effects. Marijuana’s THC content naturally contributes to more potential side effects related to memory, learning, and general cognition, which invariably means you shouldn’t be doing anything important, operating heavy machinery, or driving after taking marijuana oil. By comparison, hemp oil has far fewer side effects. Most side effects are related to hemp oil’s high polyunsaturated fat content, which may contribute to heart disease and digestive problems, but only if you are ignoring serving recommendations.


Cannabidiol (CBD) has NOT been proven to treat, relieve, nor cure any disease or medical condition listed on this site. The medical studies, controlled tests, and health information offered on Cannabidiol Life of allcbdoilbenefits.com (or any variation of the URL) is an expressed summarization of our personal conducted research done by me and few friends in the business. The information provided on this site is designed to support, NEVER replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and the patient’s/site visitor’s physician.
In a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-week study of 56 rheumatoid arthritis patients with Sativex (Blake et al 2006), employed nocturnal treatment only to a maximum of 6 sprays per evening (16.2 mg THC + 15 mg CBD). In the final treatment week, morning pain on movement, morning pain at rest, DAS-28 measure of disease activity, and SF-MPQ pain at present all favored Sativex over placebo (Table 1).
A 2011 study evaluated the effects of two non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), on pain management. The study concluded that, “CBD and CBC stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. These compounds might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.”
We use a combination of both Subcritical and Supercritical extractions. This allows us to perform a “fractional extraction” by first extracting at lower pressures to remove the lighter, temperature-sensitive volatile oils, and then subsequently extracting the same material at a higher pressure to remove the remaining oils. This approach is the best because it allows us to extract a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytochemicals that yield a more potent blend.
...with due respect, your experience Locsta is almost precisely what happened with my....chihuahua. Degenerative disc disease, excruciating pain, prednisone worked, but couldn't keep her on it..pain killers and muscle relaxants didn't help, really thought I would have to put her down. Chi bloggers suggested CBD; gave PetReleaf a shot--like you, literally within minutes I could see the difference, in days she was pain free and now is back in charge of our world. The real key here is that with my dog, there is zero, nada, chance that there was any placebo effect...

Depression? Arthritis? Inflammation contributes to pain, stiffness, and poor health over time. Many individuals opt for CBD to control inflammation. However, THC has a part to play as well. Research suggests that, in some instances, the cannabis compound can decrease the production of cytokine and chemokine compounds in the body. Cytokine and chemokines are immune compounds that trigger inflammation. Additional pre-clinical research suggests that it may be able to decrease inflammation by suppressing genes related to inflammatory response. I believe people deserve access to all parts of the cannabis plant! Together, we can spread the cannabis education not DEA lies! Just as they have done opiates! Also, it’s ridiculous to wage war between the two! Have pain patients saying medical marijuana doesn’t work etc and others saying opiates are bad. There should be access to both – whatever works for someone! I never used marijuana until forced off my opiates cold turkey in cancer recurrence left dying in stage 4 cancer pain! It stopped the pain, vomiting & 2 metastatic tumors gone confirmed via MRI. I’m not claiming it cured it but feel it slowed it down and did kill two tumors. Marijuana/Opiates – WE SHOULD HAVE A CHOICE OR BOTH IF NEEDED! Shame on our Government for all the lies and trying to turn the people against one another. I hate the DEA, CDC, FDA! Just alone at what they allow in our food – the steroids, antibiotics it is sickening! They take away opiates yet cigarettes & alcohol are legal!?!?! What kind of [edit] is that! And marijuana has never caused one death – sch 1. The alcohol/cigarette related addictions/deaths as well as cases of cancer as other terminal illness they cause! Hell we need opiates for the pain from those illnesses from their legal substances they avoid talking about if I keep it real because they sure as hell wont!
The 3000 tincture has been very helpful for me with: chronic & acute wide spread pain, headaches, anxiety, sleep, nausea, & allergies....not a complete cure, but a tremendous help with all of these, & with absolutely no side effects (& I am extremely susceptible to any side effects from meds & some supplements)....very happy to have found this product.
Even more intriguing: CBD also influences many non-cannabinoid receptor systems in the brain, interacting with receptors sensitive to a variety of drugs and neurotransmitters (Figure 2). These include opioid receptors, known for their role in pain regulation. Opioid receptors are the key targets of pharmaceutical pain killers and drugs of abuse such as morphine, heroin, and fentanyl. CBD can also interact with dopamine receptors, which play a crucial role in regulating many aspects of behavior and cognition, including motivation and reward-seeking behavior.
A. The agency has received reports of adverse events in patients using marijuana to treat medical conditions. The FDA is currently reviewing those reports and will continue to monitor adverse event reports for any safety signals attributable to marijuana and marijuana products, with a focus on serious adverse effects associated with the use of marijuana.
A: No, you will not fail a drug test. All our Zatural products are 3rd party tested to ensure that no THC is present in the oil. We only sell products that register as ND (Not Detected) or 0. Most drug tests are testing for THC levels. However, cheaper drug testing may be testing a wider variety of cannabinoids as they may not be specific enough to test for THC only. It is always a good idea to discuss with your employer or whomever before hand and explain that you are considering taking Hemp Oil or CBD oil. We can provide the tests showing there is no THC present.
The extract known as CBD oil sold in the U.S. falls into one of two categories. Crystalline isolate exclusively contains CBD, as other cannabinoids have been removed; full spectrum oil, on the other hand, retains THC and other cannabinoids, and is only sold in states where marijuana use has been legalized. CBD oil can be consumed several different ways, including ingested capsules and food products, vaporizing, tinctures, and topical creams. The soporific effects of CBD oil are linked to its concentration; low-concentration oils will produce minimal effects, while high-concentration oils will produce strong effects.
Disclaimer: This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor’s advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual results will vary. By using this site you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited By Law.
We all know of Charlotte’s Web; the miracle strain that is packed with a high concentration of CBD. The Charlotte’s Web Cannabis Strain was named after Charlotte Figi, who suffers from Dravet syndrome and was experiencing several seizures daily until the Stanley Brothers came up with this powerful strain. Since then, Charlotte’s web has been morphed into various products, including their famous Charlotte’s Web CBD oil.

Some research suggests that CBD also eases pain by engaging glycerin receptors – which are part of the central nervous system and are located in different parts of the brain and spinal cord. If a person has chronic pain, inflammatory factors sometimes disable these receptors, leading to higher sensation of pain, but it’s possible to reactivate them using CBD.
My mom is late stage dementia. We have tried coconut oil/black pepper/curcumin combo for years. Gives only tine bit of help, and is not something that reverses dementia. Maybe in someone who can score better than a 14 on the mme it could be of help. But cannabinoid is a different story. Cannabinoids produce better results in less time. Can't say yet that they will reverse anything though.
The regular followers of this blog would know that I suffer from back pain and sleep disorders. So, before I test out CBD products, I give myself a break from CBD to see how the product affects me fully. Fab CBD sells, 4 versions of the CBD Oil with 150mg, 300mg, 600mg and 1200mg. For people who like flavors with their oils, there are different flavors available too.
A. We understand that parents are trying to find treatments for their children’s medical conditions. However, the use of untested drugs can have unpredictable and unintended consequences. Caregivers and patients can be confident that FDA-approved drugs have been carefully evaluated for safety, efficacy, and quality, and are monitored by the FDA once they are on the market. The FDA continues to support sound, scientifically-based research into the medicinal uses of drug products containing marijuana or marijuana constituents, and will continue to work with companies interested in bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market.
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (January 2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759.
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