Sublingual CBD Oils – also known as CBD Tinctures or CBD Hemp Oil – are the most popular type of CBD products, because of their high bioavailability and rapid absorption. There are many other kinds of products as well, including CBD edibles, CBD topicals, and even CBD-infused Coffee. CBD products have gained immense popularity in health and wellness circles thanks to their natural support of our endocannabinoid system (ECS).
Like most herbs, cannabis does have some antimicrobial and immune-boosting properties, but it is not as strong an antimicrobial as many other herbs. There are many better herbal choices for overcoming chronic Lyme disease and similar conditions related to chronic infections with stealth microbes such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. (Top ones include andrographis, berberine, cat’s claw, Japanese knotweed, sarsaparilla, and garlic.)
Hi Sandy, for legal reason we can’t make any type of medical claims, saying that our product will cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis, such as (arthritis). Our CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety and sleep. Depending on the amount of pain or inflammation you will need to pick a strength according. If you are on a scale of 5 to 7 then 3x strength is the best. You can take more or less depending on what you feel as needed.
The way that CBD works — and the full range of its applications and health benefits — is still being explored, but it very broadly has something to do with the compound's natural analgesic effects and its interaction with your body's endocannabinoid system. For more information, pick up the forthcoming book, "CBD Oil: Everyday Secrets" by wellness editor and writer Gretchen Lidicker; it's perhaps the best summary of what we know about the compound, questions for further research, and how to buy and use CBD products in our daily lives. What I can tell you is that it really works for me.
As for extraction methods, remember that vapor distillation and CO2 extraction are preferred. These methods yield a full-spectrum CBD product, which will likely be more costly than a CBD isolate because it’s significantly more beneficial. Alcohol extraction is a cheaper method that pulls a more narrow spectrum of plant chemicals and higher levels of chlorophyll, which doesn’t taste great and also takes up space where more CBD could be. Lipid-based extractions will likely fall in the middle price-wise.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.
Both Bonn-Miller and Ward stress that it's up to the consumer to be well-educated about the material they're purchasing and the research that's out there. "The companies that are creating [cannabis oils] are offering lots of claims about its use that are not necessarily substantiated by any research," Bonn-Miller said. So "I think there needs to be, from a consumer standpoint, a lot of vigilance," he added.
Cannabis Oil* is commonly from the marijuana plant but can vary depending on the manufacturer as Cannabis is also the botanical name of the Industrial Hemp plant. The Cannabis oil from the Marijuana strain is extracted from the Marijuana plant.  It contains high levels of THC and lower levels of CBD Oil.  Cannabis Oil from the Marijuana plant is illegal in most states. It is used for medicinal purposes and as a recreational drug.  It is not regulated in its production. 
Whereas marijuana contains both THC and CBD, hemp contains almost exclusively CBD — THC occurs only in very trace amounts. Remember, though, that there are many varieties of marijuana and hemp plants, and their concentrations of THC and CBD vary. Those with high THC are used primarily for recreational use; plants with low or no THC and high CBD are best for medicinal use. Only cannabis with less than 0.3% THC can be legally classified as hemp.
The FDA relies on applicants and scientific investigators to conduct research. Our role, as outlined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is to review data submitted to the FDA in a marketing application to determine whether a proposed drug product meets the statutory standards for approval. Additional information concerning research on the medical use of marijuana is available from the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and NIDA.

Prescription medicine (Schedule 4) for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent (2.0%) or less of other cannabinoids commonly found in cannabis (such as ∆9-THC). A schedule 4 drug under the SUSMP is Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy – Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription.[79]
Cannatonic: A potent pain-reliever, Cannatonic hails from Spain and stands as one of the earliest cultivars to be bred for its high CBD content. This cultivar is a cross between MK Ultra and G13 Haze, and it helps relieves anxiety, muscle spasms, pain, and migraines while providing uplifting energy. Cannatonic tends to relax and loosen muscles without locking users to their couches.

In order to remove unwanted elements such as fats or waxes, CBD oil is subjected to a process called ‘Winterization’. Refined cannabidiol oil is stirred with alcohol and deep-frozen overnight.  A Butcher funnel or a piece of paper is then used to filter the fats out. Finally, the extracted oil is heated to the boiling point of alcohol so the alcohol evaporates.


Perhaps it’s because many people have romantic and misplaced notions about nature. Some even point out that we come hard-wired with cannabinoid receptors in our brains and they must have a purpose, so why not use them? This is not exactly a persuasive argument: Nature endowed us with our own cannabinoids, so unless you have a deficiency of them or sluggish receptors, you really don’t need supplementation.
At the present time, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) lists marijuana and its cannabinoids as a Schedule I controlled substance, arguably due to THC’s psychedelic effects. This means that cannabis cannot legally be possessed, sold or prescribed. Having said that, 16 states in the United States have already CBD-specific passed laws. Hemo-derived CBD, a THC-absent variety of cannabis sativa, had been declared legal by the industry on account of the legality of hemp itself. Confusion arose, however, when the DEA issued a statement in December 2016 stating that any derivative “from any plant of the genus Cannabis” will continue to be treated as Schedule I controlled substances, lumping cannabis and hemp together. Its legality is unclear though, as in 2004 a Federal Court ruled that hemp was OK to traffic. What is clear though, is that with research on CBD and cannabis showing indisputably positive results, legalization has been picking up pace around the globe. And with CBD hemp oil already legal throughout much of the US, Australia and the EU, millions of people are already experiencing the benefits of CBD, with numbers only increasing exponentially.
Lipid-based extraction: This method uses fats such as organic coconut oil to absorb and encapsulate the plant’s chemical compounds. The upsides of lipid-based extraction are that the fat helps make the CBD more bioavailable (easy to absorb), and there are no harsh solvents used. The downside: you won’t get a full spectrum of compounds like you would with vapor distillation or CO2 extraction.

The first time I came across CBD was when I was visiting my brother in San Antonio, Texas 2 years back. The one day I had some serious back pain, My brother's neighbour suggested that I should try CBD oil for my pain as it helps his mom with her cancer pain, and directed me to SABotanicals, a local CBD store in San Antonio where I bought a 2000mg CBD oil.In the beginning, I was a sceptic, but it worked so well that I ordered three more bottles to last me for a few months. I must say that also felt relaxed but could do my work with no issues as it didn't make me high.To date, I'm still using CBD oil for my paid and came off pain medications completely.God gave us something great!
The problem with US people is we think more is better. Not the case with CBD oil. The recommended dose is the size of a few pieces of rice ( put into an empty capsule to ingest. It taste terrible. Many commercial CBD products are mixed with olive oils and other oils. All not regulated therefore dosing is precarious. Swear by the use of CBD oil and although not covered by Insurance (yet) the benefits are so worth the cost. I do realize cost is a major problem for many but most states have compassionate dosing available through the dispensaries and state. In California if you get compassionate product one must register with the State and lose their 2nd Ammendment rights, to own guns. They have nothing to do with each other and it is BS so I pay for my own and skip the registration process. No ones business if I use CBD oil. I find for me a ratio of about 15:1 is perfect.
Hemp Oil is most commonly sourced from the Cannabis Sativa (Industrial Hemp) plant seed. It is also called Hemp Seed Oil.  Hemp Oil is regulated in its production and is tested for THC and CBD levels, however it does not contain either of those Cannabinoids. Test have shown that there are no cannabinoids present in the seeds of the hemp plant. Hemp Oil is most commonly referred to as a Superfood, because of the high levels of Omegas, Vitamins, and other Nutrients. It may also assist with Pain, and stress due to its naturally occurring nutrients. Hemp Oil is also excellent for Hair and skin thanks to all of those Omegas and Vitamins! 

The second method of pain relief centers around the damage you do when you work out. When you strength train, you create micro-tears in your muscles, which is why you feel sore as you heal. Once your immune cells detect damage, they release inflammatory mediators in order to repair the tissue. CBD, though has the ability to limit the release of some proinflammatory signals, thereby helping with pain without thwarting the healing entirely, Gerdeman explains.
Using CBD for pain is personal and requires patience as you determine the best form of consumption for you. If you’re new to the world of CBD, talking with other patients is a great way to get information about products and to connect with a community of like-minded individuals. Some companies offer money-back guarantees if you’re not satisfied with the product. This may be a great way to comfortably try products. We believe that one critically important criteria when shopping for CBD products are considering the quality of the hemp or cannabis used and whether or not the product has been lab tested. You can learn more at CannaInsider.com/reviews.

We start with an exceptionally high-quality lotion which we infuse with our hemp extract.  So, not only will you get the CBD you seek, you will also get a lotion that moisturizes without leaving you feeling greasy.  And, the pleasant aroma is soft and subtle, not overwhelming.  The lotion is ideal for using in larger parts of the body as it is not quite as thick as the cream.  The lotion is able to cover a larger part of the body, although it doesn’t have to be spread out.  It can also be used in smaller areas if that’s what you desire.  This product is made with 100mg of CBD per ounce of product.


...with due respect, your experience Locsta is almost precisely what happened with my....chihuahua. Degenerative disc disease, excruciating pain, prednisone worked, but couldn't keep her on it..pain killers and muscle relaxants didn't help, really thought I would have to put her down. Chi bloggers suggested CBD; gave PetReleaf a shot--like you, literally within minutes I could see the difference, in days she was pain free and now is back in charge of our world. The real key here is that with my dog, there is zero, nada, chance that there was any placebo effect...
People who suffer from chronic inflammatory diseases whould really try hempseed oil. Its so rich in omega -3 and omega – 6 fatty acids, which are strongly anti-inflammatory. These essential fatty acids are required by the body to lower systemic inflammation. With regular use, one can clearly see an improvement in inflammation and even pain in conditions like arthritis.
^ Jump up to: a b Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC 2697769. PMID 19133999.
“THC”—the more-famous, high-inducing compound in cannabis—“works directly on the cannabinoid system, meaning it attaches to receptors and mimics some of our own internal endocannabinoids,” says Igor Grant, a professor and chair of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. But CBD’s interaction with the endocannabinoid system is subtler. “Normally, these endocannabinoid-signaling molecules are broken down by enzymes, and one thing CBD does is interfere with the actions of those enzymes.”
We all know of Charlotte’s Web; the miracle strain that is packed with a high concentration of CBD. The Charlotte’s Web Cannabis Strain was named after Charlotte Figi, who suffers from Dravet syndrome and was experiencing several seizures daily until the Stanley Brothers came up with this powerful strain. Since then, Charlotte’s web has been morphed into various products, including their famous Charlotte’s Web CBD oil.
Hemp seed oil made from the industrial hemp plant contains only tiny trace amounts of THC. THC is why marijuana is illegal in so many countries and states. So, since industrial hemp oil is low in THC but contains high amounts of CBD, you can get your CBD hemp oil legally in all 50 states and shipped right to your home. You won’t get a high from CBD oil, but you will get all the health benefits of a high-quality CBD supplement.

Moreover, scientists at the Cajal Institute showed promising results in regards to CBD and Multiple Sclerosis. They used animal models and cell cultures to find that CBD reversed inflammatory responses; within only ten days, mice that were used in the study had superior motor skills and showed progression in their condition. To date, there have been well over 20,000 published scientific articles on cannabinoids and their related effects on all sorts of medical ailments.

A: No, you will not fail a drug test. All our Zatural products are 3rd party tested to ensure that no THC is present in the oil. We only sell products that register as ND (Not Detected) or 0. Most drug tests are testing for THC levels. However, cheaper drug testing may be testing a wider variety of cannabinoids as they may not be specific enough to test for THC only. It is always a good idea to discuss with your employer or whomever before hand and explain that you are considering taking Hemp Oil or CBD oil. We can provide the tests showing there is no THC present.
Cooper recently got funding from the National Institutes of Health for a study looking at cannabinoids — including CBD in isolation — as a substitute for opioids, and numerous other clinical trials of CBD are underway. It will be several years before results are available, but these studies should help clarify both what benefits the substance may provide and any side effects it may come with. Most of the adverse effects so far associated with cannabis, such as impairments in short-term memory, coordination and judgment,2 come from products that contain THC as well as CBD, Cooper said, but we need to do more studies to find out for sure whether CBD has fewer risks. Studies are also needed to identify the best way to administer and dose CBD. “I get emails from people asking me what dose of CBD to use, and the truth is, we really don’t know,” Cooper said.
My husband considers CBD essential to his treatment plan. He suffers from TBI caused by HSE, dystonia (right side, plus neck and face), ankylosing spondylitis, spinal bone spurs and nerve impingement, CFS/ME, lifelong insomnia, and plain old arthritis; he’s convinced that CBD has been the key for being able to reduce (with the goal of eventually eliminating) his Klonopin as quickly as he has, and for managing the reduction of his pain script.
I have been giving my 9 year old German Shepard the 500mg tincture a few times per day and he has really taken to it. Hes suffered from hip pain I believe arthritis and getting up off the floor and stairs have been an issue. After taking this oil We noticed immediate results. Im a believer in CBD and if Arnold could speak he would thank us for giving him this CBD. 5 stars
But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
People claim that cannabis oil can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, though evidence to back up these claims is often lacking. For example, according to Medical News Today, people use cannabis oil for conditions ranging from pain to acne; some even claim the oil can cure diseases like Alzheimer's and cancer. (But again, there is no clinical evidence to support these claims.) 

MMJ with a high THC content only helps with my spasms at night. No pain relief at all. At first I tried a high CBD and it was not helpful. MMJ in my case is supplement (expensive one at 344.00 dollars a month for two vape hits per night ) for me and is in no way an adequate replacement for the pain medication I took successfully for six years, now I am left without reasonable pain relief. I feel MMJ has a place in pain management but I write this as a long time CPP knowing that one size never fits all.


I’ve found the physical sensation of this one — warm and a little tingly, thanks to additives like nettle — is especially comforting in-flight, since I have a tendency to get goosebumps in that over-air-conditioned environment. Plus, unlike other CBD skin oils that typically come with an eye dropper, this one has a nice pump bottle. (I also have a tendency to spill all over myself, on planes and in daily life).

Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.

Hemp oil can be used for the treatment of minor health ailments and as a dietary supplement for the promotion of general good health. Hemp oil is considered one of the most useful natural supplements for the body due to its ability to provide essential fatty acids to humans that we would not be able to manufacture on our own. However, you should also be aware of potential side effects associated with hemp oil. As such, be sure to speak to a medical professional for more information on hemp oil effects.


In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.


A. The FDA is aware that there are potential adverse health effects with use of marijuana in pregnant or lactating women. Published scientific literature reports potential adverse effects of marijuana use in pregnant women, including fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and stillbirth. [1, 2, 3] Based on published animal research, there are also concerns that use of marijuana during pregnancy may negatively impact fetal brain development.  [4, 5, 6 ] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. In addition, ACOG notes that there are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on breastfed infants; therefore, marijuana use is discouraged when breastfeeding. [7] Pregnant and lactating women should talk with a health care provider about the potential adverse health effects of marijuana use.
Finding the perfect CBD Oil daily dosage is now easier than ever, thanks to CBD Daily Doses, from Green Roads. Cannabinoids like CBD interact with our body’s endocannabinoid system to produce their effects. This network of chemicals signalers and receptors is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of both body and mind. While it’s important to balance your endocannabinoid system with CBD, it’s just as important to balance your daily schedule, and CBD Daily Doses make it easy and simple to do just that.

Can CBD oil help anxiety? Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical occurring in cannabis plants. It is possible to add CBD oil to food, and an increasing amount of evidence suggests that it may improve mental health, particularly anxiety. It does not seem to have adverse side effects, but CBD oil is illegal in some states. Learn more about CBD oil here. Read now
In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex (a drug made with a purified form of CBD oil) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years of age and older. These two epilepsy forms are known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana.
3) If you live in a state where there’s a lot of choice, I encourage you to do some research to find dispensaries that genuinely seem to cater to medical consumers. Some dispensaries even in states where cannabis is only medically legal mostly are aimed at recreational users. At medical places, employees will be knowledgeable about dosages, the menu will be very clear about dosages and usages, there will be a wide range of CBD products, and some will even offer additional medical or educational services such as workshops or visits with cannabis-friendly herbalists.
It is for this reason that all the finished hemp goods that you see for sale in America, from food products to clothing to building materials, are part of an imported hemp industry that has surpassed $688 million annually. The size of this import industry is one of the major catalysts for hemp legalization in the U.S. As a renewable source of a range of products, hemp provides an exciting new step in American agriculture.
I placed my first order well over a month ago, but wanted to wait until I could give a more accurate review of Medterras CBD tincture. Ive dealt with the pain of fibromyalgia for many years, and never wanted to take the harsh prescription drugs usually associated with the condition (the side effects seem worse than living with the condition itself!). I did a great deal of research on hemp CBD and thought Id at least give it a try. I am both surprised and pleased to report that I have found a significant difference since taking CBD. Obviously, I cant say that it will work for everyone and every condition, but I will say that at least in my case, it has improved the quality of my body movement significantly. Certainly worth a try if you are at all hesitant.
Current policies encourage patients to be less than forthcoming with their healthcare providers (for fear of being dropped as a patient or cut off their meds). To start with don’t even mention medical MJ! How can patients get decent healthcare if they cannot talk honestly to their primary care physicians about pain? Heaven forbid we should answer (mandatory) periodic pain management screening questionnaires honestly. “Are you ever anxious or depressed? Do you ever think your family might be better off if you weren’t here? Have you ever considered suicide?” All those answers had better be “No” when, in reality, well. . .Yeah! For me, at least sometimes, and the latter two questions would become much more likely “yes” answers if I had no pain relief at all!
Our premium hemp oil drops has the listed amount of full spectrum hemp oil listed on the front of the bottle in milligrams. We offer three different strengths. Our base strengths at 300mg to 600mg, then our 3x strength products 1,000mg to 2,000mg, and last our 5x strength which is our strongest product at 1,500mg to 3,000mg. Here is a link to the product.
Although hemp and marijuana are essentially different cultivars of the same plant – Cannabis sativa L – marijuana has been cultivated to concentrate high levels of THC (frequently as much as 18%), in the plant’s flowering tops, whereas hemp, which is primarily grown in Europe to make clothing, paper, biofuels, bioplastics, nutritional supplements, cosmetics, and foods, contains less than 0.3% THC.
Finally, compare the levels of CBD in milligrams (mg) in each product to assess value for money. ‘Quality packaging will tell you the total amount of CBD supplied within the pack, as well as the amount per dose (be it a capsule, gummy, oil dropper or spray) in milligrams, Dr Brewer explains. ‘Products with this labelling allow you to see exactly how much CBD you’re buying and taking.’

I did an analysis of 10 diffirent CBD oils and Medterras 3000mg bottle is the most cost effective per mg. Their product also appears the safest with where they source their materials and how they conduct their business. There were no issues with the ordering process and I received my product in a timely fashion as well. There is almost no taste to the oil and I take 25 ml (25 mg) twice daily with excellent results. I finely feel calm and sleep well. I am also able to focus better and get more done each day, which was an unexpected bonus. I was very sceptical about CBD at first. I have tried everything for my anxiety, and although some of the traditional drugs work, their side effects negate any benefits. I was feeling very frustrated and hopeless and ordered the CBD out of desperation. Im glad I took the chance. Well, it wasnt really a chance; I read every research article I could get my hands on and was swayed by the emerging data. I guess it was more of a leap of faith in a product that had such high claims and no healthcare gatekeepers. I have had no side effects though. The only negative is the cost.
i had a hip replacement in 17 prior to that it was 2 years of agony. i created my own cbd/thc creame. the thc is an important component for its medical benefits, youll just have to try small samples to see if external applications irritate you, if so go to 150 mg. cbd creme. no thc. Get the hip done, huge improvement in quality of life. Im 62 years old so its been great since the hip.
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is used by some people with chronic pain. CBD oil may reduce pain, inflammation, and overall discomfort related to a variety of health conditions. CBD oil is a product made from cannabis. It’s a type of cannabinoid, a chemical found naturally in marijuana and hemp plants. It doesn’t cause the “high” feeling often associated with cannabis, which is caused by a different type of cannabinoid called THC.
Everything you need to know about CBD oil CBD oil may offer a range of benefits, including reducing pain and inflammation. Evidence shows that the oil does not contain psychoactive properties and so does not have the same effects as marijuana. Here, learn more about CBD oil and its uses, benefits, and risks. We also discuss its legality in the U.S. Read now
Since 2015, Kush Queen has been committed to providing premier hemp CBD, wellness, skincare, beauty and lifestyle products. Today, with products ranging from topicals, smokables, jewelry and apparel, Kush Queen is the premier female-focused hemp CBD lifestyle brand. Through our unwavering commitment to quality, innovation and education, Kush Queen offers a modern perspective on medicine and wellness to the world.
fibromyalgia, crps/rsd,carpel tunnel in both wrists, tendonitis, chronic migraine. mj has been effective in controlling my pain, spasms, tension and ive even had a slight improvement of my depression BECAUSE much of my depression is because of the medications i was taking AND the new limitations, changes in capabilities and problems that my body has brought on.All these thanks to Dr Mark Donald for providing me with CBD/low THC Cannabis Oil ratio 2 : 1(10): 3-4 puffs per day .Get to him via his number 313- 923-7690 .
Tammy et al, Through trial and error you will find a correct dosage. Try 50 mg daily....25 each 2x daily....if no results up the dosage until it works for you. Remember, there has never been a death from marijuana or CBD use. You might want to try a tincture or rub with CBD and THC. You won't get the psych high from it. Helps my friend with PArkinsons tremors. She takes 50mg of tincture and uses the rub morning and night. It is a miracle for arthritis. Good luck
The glutamatergic system is integral to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, and is responsible for generating secondary and tertiary hyperalgesia in migraine and fibromyalgia via NMDA mechanisms (Nicolodi et al 1998). Thus, it is important to note that cannabinoids presynaptically inhibit glutamate release (Shen et al 1996), THC produces 30%–40% reduction in NMDA responses, and THC is a neuroprotective antioxidant (Hampson et al 1998). Additionally, cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia via inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (Richardson et al 1998a). As for Substance P mechanisms, cannabinoids block capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia (Li et al 1999), and THC will do so at sub-psychoactive doses in experimental animals (Ko and Woods 1999). Among the noteworthy interactions with opiates and the endorphin/enkephalin system, THC has been shown to stimulate beta-endorphin production (Manzanares et al 1998), may allow opiate sparing in clinical application (Cichewicz et al 1999), prevents development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates (Cichewicz and Welch 2003), and rekindles opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has worn off (Cichewicz and McCarthy 2003). These are all promising attributes for an adjunctive agent in treatment of clinical chronic pain states.

CBD Cream

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